Technology and research are onto the extent of perfection. We cannot imagine what scientists are up to and what they can make in the laboratories. Recent news have up that the Dutch scientists successfully made synthetic embryos in laboratory by using mouse’s stem cells. Interesting is the thing that they did not use any sperm or egg which are really mandatory for the formation of zygote which in turn will develop in embryo.
Nature Journal provided information that they are not cloning humans or organs, but they are interested in knowing why the early stages of pregnancies are not able to complete it’s phases and eventually dies and not result in formation of fetus.
WHAT IS THE PROCESS?
- Fusion of egg cell and sperm
- Formation of zygote/embryo
- Mitotic division of embryo
First the egg cell and sperm meets and fuses with each other undergoing process called fertilization. Then after fertilization, chromosomal material of egg and sperm meets and forms a diploid zygote. This zygote or embryo further undergoes mitotic division and ultimately forms a blastocyst with outer layer of trophoblast and inner cell mass.
These inner cell mass are containing stem cells. Stem cells are really potent to give rise to new tissues and organs.
WHAT STUDY HAS BEEN DONE?
Dr. Nicolas Rivron, who is from Merlin Institute of Maastricht University, along with his team made embroys by adding two different types of stem cells which he took out from the mice. The artificially synthesized embryos were looking far similiar with the natural embryos or we can say blastocyst stage at which we can see trophoblast and inner mass cells containing stem cells as told earlier in the article. These embryos were then going to be transferred in the womb of the mice. Dr Rivron said “We can now generate extremely large numbers of these embryos and study them in detail. It could help us understand why some embryos fail to implant and let us screen for drugs that might help with fertility.”
He also told that they did not have any further plans of re-doing this experiment with the human stem cells and which actually they cannot perform as it would have needed permissions for using human stem cells.
Professor Rovell-Lovin Badge said “This is a pity for basic research because it would be very useful to have a limitless supply of human blastocyst-like stage embryos to understand the relevant cell-cell interactions required to make normal embryos and to study mechanisms of implantation. This experiment proved to be a great achievement for the team. Many doctors also said that this is most successful practice of making embryos from stem line cells.
Dr Dusko Ilic stated “This is the first time that scientists have been able to shed a light on the molecular mechanisms of implantation and these findings may help us to understand more about some aspects of infertility and improve outcomes of assisted reproduction.”
The procedure involved transferring the embryos in the mice and was not intended to form the embryo that will be viable or will survive at the end of the experiment.
AIM OF THE STUDY
Clearly, the researchers said that they do not want to clone organs, but yes they are interested to know more about the early stages of development of embryos. Many miscarriages occur more rapidly without knowledge of a woman that she was pregnant. Researchers wanted to know why this happens. Nicolas Rivron told “This breakthrough has opened up the black box of early pregnancy,”. This study will open up the doors of healthy pregnancies good chances of women to conceive.