The astrophysics theories have been informed that the Big Bang produced an equal amount of matter and antimatter. But, scientists have been amazed by a fact that the universe has more amount of matter than antimatter. To find out the real truth about matter and antimatter, a team of researchers has planned to conduct a five-year CUORE experiment. The CUROE is the short form of Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events. The observatory is situated in Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics. As per the statement given by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology the scientists are now searching for a neutrino-less double-beta decay, which can be developed from tellurium dioxide crystals using natural decaying process.
The key feature of the observatory is, it has detector inside which stays at a temperature of 6 millikelvin which is around -459.6 degrees Fahrenheit. With this temperature, it is the coldest cubic meter present in the universe. 19 towers of the detector consist 52 crystals, around 988 of tellurium dioxide crystals. The combined weight of the crystal will be around 1,600 pounds. These 988 crystals add up to about 100 septillion atoms of the tellurium.
Previously, scientists were discovered that there is some unknown process that has allowed the matter to turned into antimatter the Big Bang. Now the scientists working with the CUORE experiment is planning to examine the theory which explains that the neutrino is a Majorana fermion, a particle without no charge and can shift from matter to antimatter and also can turn back to its normal form. The team stated that if they prove that theory to be correct, then the result can solve many questions on universe’s matter and antimatter and their level. It can show the reason behind the imbalance between these two particles. It is believed that the asymmetrical decay process of heavier neutrinos can produce more matter than antimatter.
The researchers want to confirm that neutrinos being their own antiparticle via CUORE experiment. The double-beta decay process of a Neutrinoless decay starts when stable isotopes release two antineutrinos, and dual protons and electrons. This event is very rare. Neutrinos will start neutrino-less decay and two antineutrinos will cancel each other. The neutrino-less decays are so rare that scientists believe it happen just for one time in many septillion years in a tellurium atom only.
For two months, the scientists are observing the data taken from the CUORE Observatory and were not able to detect any neutrino-less decays. The finding was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. Now, as they will conduct a different experiment for five years, the team is now expecting to record five neutrino-less events considering the fact of the presence of millions of atoms in the 1,000 tellurium dioxide crystals present inside the coldest cubic meter.
However, if they will not able to detect any neutrino-less double beta decays in five years, they still have a chance to detect the rare events. Because the team is also developing a hybrid experiment which they named as CUPID. It will carry out another search process for the same thing but will use more atoms. Talking more about it, Lindley Winslow, MIT professor and a team member of CUORE stated that before declaring it as impossible, the team will conduct a next-generation CUORE experiment with the help of more atoms. He further stated, “If we don’t see it within 10 to 15 years, then unless nature chose something really weird, the neutrino is most likely not its own antiparticle.”